Like gluten protein, egg protein coagulates to give structure to baked products. It acts as thickening agent for egg generally coagulates when heated as in the baking of pudding and custard.
As a binding agent, since the protein in egg has the characteristics to hold together various materials when heated as in crusts, crumbs and batter.
Emulsifying of fats and liquids
Egg yolks contain natural emulsifiers that help produce smooth batter. It is considered an emulsifier of cholesterol.
Beaten eggs incorporate air in tiny cells or bubbles. In a batter, this trapped air expands when heated and aids in leavening. When eggs are creamed along with butter they help to encapsulate even more air than otherwise possible.
The fat in eggs yolks acts as a shortening. This is an important function in products that are low in other fats.
Eggs are mostly water. And the moisture in eggs allows them to act as a binding agent an help retain moisture in the product, thereby extending the shelf life.
Egg is rich in food nutrients which when mixed into the dough will supply calcium, iron, phosphorus, thiamine, riboflavin and vitamins A and D in baked products.
Egg produces golden-brown finish on bread.